In situ conservation of wild plant species a critical global review of good practices
The aim of this book is to provide readers with a broad understanding of the concept and methodologies of in situ conservation for target plant species. The book is based upon a global survey, undertaken by the first author, of existing guidelines, methodologies, case studies and other relevant literature on the in situ conservation of plant species, as well as current activities in this area by national and international agencies. This global review was undertaken as part of a UNEP/GEF project (EP/INT/204/GEF) entitled 'Design, Testing and Evaluation of Best Practices for in situ Conservation of Economically Important Wild Species', for which FAO was the executing agency. In preparing the review for publication as a book, we have taken the opportunity to revise the text and add further examples in order to make it suitable for the general reader interested in the subject of in situ conservation of species. We have tried to include examples from as many countries as possible, although much of the work in this area has up until now been undertaken in temperate regions. We have also provided an extensive bibliography which will allow the reader to explore many of the topics covered in the text in more depth.
This book is divided into four parts. Part I deals with the concept, approach and actors of species-based in situ conservation and attempts to clarify the ambiguity of the concept of in situ conservation as it relates to target species. In the minds of many people, in situ conservation is taken to mean the creation of protected areas and implies a narrow ecosystem approach, with the inclusion of local communities and conservation of species being incidental. This concept is now rapidly changing, as more focus is placed on individual target species and the needs and well-being of local communities and people are beginning to receive more consideration. It is also clear that in situ conservation cannot be the sole mode of conservation: it will not be possible to turn the location of every population of wild plants into a protected area, due to cost considerations or other land-use reasons. in situ conservation will need to be complemented by ex situ conservation where appropriate and, in particular, some sites will need to be managed with local stakeholders in a participative manner. Global changes in population growth, land-use patterns and climate change will also affect the ways in which in situ sites are designed and managed (see Section 1.5). This part also discusses the most important international instruments which govern the conservation of wild plant species, notably the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Global Plan of Action, as well as other regional initiatives, and the role of major UN and international agencies dealing with wild species.